Taking responsibility for the macroeconomic parts of that study, I used as my analytic tools both classical Cobb-Douglas functions, and the new activity analysis being developed by Koopmans. Simon, the son of German-Jewish immigrants, was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Scientific Discovery: Computational Explorations of the Creative Process. His primary research interest was decision-making within organizations and he is best known for the theories of "bounded rationality" and "satisficing". Simon later also[23] taught psychology and computer science in the same university,[22] (occasionally visiting other universities[24]). From 1966 until his death on February 9, 2001, Simon was Richard King Mellon University Professor of Computer Science and Psychology. Herbert Alexander Simon was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin on June 15, 1916. What are synonyms for Herbert Alexander Simon? Essays on psychology, human information-processing, and problem-solving. Seeking to replace the highly simplified classical approach to economic modeling, Simon became best known for his theory of corporate decision in his book Administrative Behavior. Science and Its Times: Understanding the Social Significance of Scientific Discovery. Since it is impossible for players to examine all the possibilities, they learn to follow promising lines of play and to utilize "rules of thumb" in decision-making. Models of Bounded Rationality. Until well along in my high school years, my interests were quite dispersed, although they were increasingly directed toward science – of what sort I wasn’t sure. by Herbert A. Simon Paperback. For more than a century, these academic institutions have worked independently to select Nobel Prize laureates. In his work Simon brought greater realism to neoclassical economic models, which he found to be lacking because of their idealized vision of the "rational" consumer, businessperson, or worker. The neoclassical approach would be to search for the needle in the stack (a maximization process). [50] He determined that the internal organization of firms and the external business decisions thereof, did not conform to the neoclassical theories of "rational" decision-making. [26] 36-49, Simon followed Chester Barnard, who stated "the decisions that an individual makes as a member of an organization are quite distinct from his personal decisions". I was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on June 15, 1916. Another type presents a standard for evaluating a decision. Later in his career, Simon pursued means of creating artificial intelligence through computer technology. That is, the agent should satisfice. Administrative Behavior: A Study of Decision-Making in Administrative Organizations, 4th ed. Alternate titles: Herbert Alexander Simon, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Herbert-A-Simon, Herbert A. Simon - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). . (1936) and Ph.D. (1943) from the University of Chicago. His father was an electrical engineer and his mother an accomplished pianist. McCorduck, Pamela. CHREST has been used predominantly, to simulate aspects of chess expertise. "Herbert Alexander Simon Intelligence Activity 2. Herbert A. Simon combined the study of social and behavioral science with the disciplines of mathematics, physics, and economics in a career that included a longtime focus on the science of decision-making in organizations. Then the substantive standard of satisficing, but not the substantive standard of utility maximizing, applies to the agent’s decision. Models of Bounded Rationality, volume 3. He won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1978 and the Turing Award in 1975. My father, an electrical engineer, had come to the United States in 1903 after earning his engineering diploma at the Technische Hochschule of Darmstadt, Germany. Optimization is a goal of rationality, but a person with good excuses for not attaining that goal may still decide rationally. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2004. There he gathered up sociology, psychology, politics, and biology, as well as mathematics, philosophy, and scientific research methods (Heuklom, 2006; Simon, 1982). Simon’s father, an electrical engineer, came to the United States from Germany in 1903. My father, an electrical engineer, had come to the United States in 1903 after earning his engineering diploma at the Technische Hochschule of Darmstadt, Germany. Simon and his longtime collaborator Allen Newell won the 1975 A.M. Turing Award, the highest honour in computer science, for their “basic contributions to artificial intelligence, the psychology of human cognition, and list processing.”. Encyclopedia of World Biography. This is reflected in the theory of subjective expected utility. . Perhaps a decision that satisfices is also a decision that maximizes utility under constraints concerning time and the like. Herbert A. Simon - Prize Lecture: Rational Decision-Making in Business Organizations, The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1978. Simon was interested in studying biology but chose not to pursue the field because of his "color-blindness and awkwardness in the laboratory". The Carnegie Mellon University Herbert A. Simon Collection has the complete corpus of Simon’s work. He was also an inventor and held several dozen patents. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1982. By his definition, an operational administrative decision should be correct, efficient, and practical to implement with a set of coordinated means.[27]. [31], Loyalty was defined by Simon as the "process whereby the individual substitutes organizational objectives (service objectives or conservation objectives) for his own aims as the value-indices which determine his organizational decisions". 21 Dec. 2022 . Simon married Dorothea Pye in 1938. Nobel Prize Outreach AB 2023. Machines Who Think. . In the area of production scheduling Simon co-authored the "Certainty Equivalent" theorem (1956, 1960), which provided practical help to businesses concerned with the needs for labor and inventory when demand fluctuates. In decision-making, Simon believed that agents face uncertainty about the future and costs in acquiring information in the present. The book was an expansion of his doctoral dissertation, which began his studies of rationality. Pada tahun 1975, Simon mendapat penghargaan Turing Award dari ACM, bersama Allen Newell atas jasanya dalam memberikan kontribusi yang besar di bidang kecerdasan buatan, psikologi . Later publications include Models of Man (1957), The Sciences of the Artificial (1969), Human Problem Solving, with Allen Newell (1972), and Models of Discovery (1977), among others. New York: Basic Books, 1991. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Models of Thought. Simon was educated as a child in the public school system in Milwaukee where he developed an interest in science. Herbert Alexander Simon 1916-2001 I n 1978 American social scientist Herbert Simon was awarded the Nobel Prize in economics for his "pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations." Simon has many honours including a noble Prize for Economic Sciences. The following year, he and Newell invented a general problem-solving machine. My interests in organizations and administration have extended to participation as well as observation. That level may change as an agent acquires information and assesses the results of past decisions. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. In 1979, Simon still maintained these ideas and argued that land value tax should replace taxes on wages. He was an inventor and designer of electrical control gear, later also a patent attorney. [52], Some of Simon's economic research was directed toward understanding technological change in general and the information processing revolution in particular. His primary research interest was decision-making within organizations and he is best known for the theories of "bounded rationality" and "satisficing". Bach, William W. Cooper, and others in developing the new school. A person may rationally make a decision after reasonable efforts to gather information even if he or she still lacks full information. My home nurtured in me an early attachment to books and other things of the intellect, to music, and to the out of doors. Many know him as a Nobel Prize-winning economist, an administrative theorist . [43] Simon was interested in the role of knowledge in expertise. In particular, economists should employ "auxiliary assumptions" that reflect the knowledge in the relevant biomedical fields, and guide the specification of econometric models for health outcomes. A collection of essays reviewing Simon’s ideas about satisficing. From Nobel Lectures, Economics 1969-1980, Editor Assar Lindbeck, World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore, 1992. He received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1978 and the Turing Award in computer science in 1975. [17] Unlike most children, Simon's family introduced him to the idea that human behavior could be studied scientifically; his mother's younger brother, Harold Merkel (1892–1922), who studied economics at the University of Wisconsin–Madison under John R. Commons, became one of his earliest influences. □. "Herbert Alexander Simon Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. By a combination of formal training and self study, the latter continuing systematically well into the 1940s, I was able to gain a broad base of knowledge in economics and political science, together with reasonable skills in advanced mathematics, symbolic logic, and mathematical statistics. As a testament to his wide interests, he at one point taught an undergraduate course on the French Revolution. [44], He was awarded the ACM Turing Award, along with Allen Newell, in 1975. What counts as a satisfactory decision depends on an agent’s aspiration level, that is, the agent’s realistic expectation. Meanwhile, however, the descriptive study of organizational decision-making continued as my main occupation, in this case in collaboration with Harold Guetzkow, James March, Richard Cyert and others. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. These themes and this challenge are central to the vision of the Simon Initiative. Herbert A. Simon [41] Simon's work on emotional cognition was largely ignored by the artificial intelligence research community for several years, but subsequent work on emotions by Sloman and Picard helped refocus attention on Simon's paper and eventually, made it highly influential on the topic. Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. He was involved in several computer projects to study human cognition and form models of human learning, problem solving, and "thinking" using computer programs. Simon meraih Nobel Perdamaian pada tahun 1978 atas teorinya tentang pengambilan keputusan pada . An active leader in professional and civic affairs, he received an honorary doctorate from Marquette University for his many activities in the community. Later he became an independent patent attorney. ." I secured a position in political science at Illinois Institute of Technology by the intercession of a friend who was leaving. Encyclopedia.com. He called the. They had three children, Katherine, Barbara, and Peter. Weirich, Paul. - 4 US economist, political scientist and psychologist. Herbert Alexander Simon was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin to Arthur Simon, an electrical engineer who had come to the United States from Germany. Simon distinguished procedural and substantive rationality. ." [47], Simon has been credited for revolutionary changes in microeconomics. Marschak brought Simon in to assist in the study he was currently undertaking with Sam Schurr of the "prospective economic effects of atomic energy".[22]. An observer may apply the standard of evaluation after the agent reaches a decision. Herbert Alexander Simon , economista, politólogo y teórico de las ciencias sociales estadounidense. Herbert Simón establece que las personas simplemente intentan buscar una mínima satisfacción, es decir, tratan de alcanzar ciertos niveles de éxito para después, poco a poco, ir ajustando esa solución. However, the date of retrieval is often important. His wife died a year later in 2002. Most modern American economists until the mid-1970s also utilized this methodology. [5], American political scientist, economist, sociologist, and psychologist, Mathematical, statistical, and computer sciences. Presentation Time in Expert Memory", "Press Release: Studies of Decision-Making Lead to Prize in Economics", "Herbert A. Simon and the Concept of Rationality: Boundaries and Procedures", American Academy of Arts and Sciences 2012 Book of Members/ChapterS, amacad.org, "Honorary doctors at Lund School og Economics and Management", interview with Ted Lowi (subsequent Cornell recipient of an Honorary degree from the University of Pavia), at news.cornell.edu, "Publicaciones, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Boletín Informativo", "Elements of a Theory of Human Problem Solving", "Home - Carnegie Mellon University Libraries", Minds, Models and Milieux: Commemorating the Centennial of the Birth of Herbert Simon, Full-text digital archive of Herbert Simon papers, pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations, History of Twentieth-Century Philosophy of Science, Documentary interviews with Herbert Simon, with critiques of his work, as part of the Nobel Perspectives project, Laureate of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics, Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Herbert_A._Simon&oldid=1131974027, Fellows of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Fellows of the Association for Computing Machinery, Members of the United States National Academy of Sciences, Foreign members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Distinguished Fellows of the American Economic Association, Members of the American Philosophical Society, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2014, Pages incorrectly using the Blockquote template, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2016, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2016, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Nobelprize template using Wikidata property P8024, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, Adequacy of achieving the desired objective, Efficiency with which the result was obtained, Identifying and listing all the alternatives. Simon argued that knowledge of all alternatives, or all consequences that follow from each alternative is impossible in many realistic cases.[26]. Simon's most important mentor was Henry Schultz, an econometrician and mathematical economist. Herbert A. Simon. When our research grant was exhausted, in 1942, jobs were not plentiful and my military obligations were uncertain. Human Problem Solving. At that time, the Cowles Commission for Research in Economics was located at the University of Chicago. MLA style: Herbert A. Simon – Biographical. He was also the first social scientist elected to the National Academy of Sciences. He said that to become an expert on a topic required about ten years of experience and he and colleagues estimated that expertise was the result of learning roughly 50,000 chunks of information. Retrieved December 21, 2022 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/herbert-alexander-simon, American Professor of Computer Science and Psychology 1916–2001. He wrote his dissertation while directing a research group at the University of California, Berkeley. Walgren had called the meeting for advice on how he might These procedures consist in assuming that he can isolate from the rest of the world a closed system containing a limited number of variables and a limited range of consequences.[29]. For most adolescents, science means physics, mathematics, chemistry, or biology – those are the subjects to which they are exposed in school. Antonyms for Herbert Alexander Simon. Simon's lifelong passion was the study of decision-making and problem-solving. Bounded rationality is a central theme in behavioral economics. To emphasize utility maximization’s reliance on probabilities of options’ outcomes, instead of certainty of their outcomes, theorists also call it expected utility maximization. Herbert Alexander Simon was an American political scientist, with a Ph.D. in political science, whose work also influenced the fields of computer science, economics, and cognitive psychology. Herbert Alexander Simon (1916-2001) was an American psychologist and economist. His mother, Edna Marguerite Merkel, was an accomplished pianist. Organizational inducements, rewards, and sanctions are all designed to form, strengthen, and maintain this identification.[26]212. He wrote several books on computers, economics, and management, and in 1986 he won the U.S. National Medal of Science. Simon, Herbert A. [51], In his youth, Simon took an interest in land economics and Georgism, an idea known at the time as "single tax". Besides awards already mentioned, he was a member of the National Academy of Sciences, received the National Medal of Science (1986), and won the American Psychological Association’s Award for Outstanding Lifetime Contributions to Psychology (1993). Flynn, Roger R. "Simon, Herbert A Simon is primarily interested in seeking identification of the individual employee with the organizational goals and values. . In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. The decision reached may be defective because of its content. On graduation in 1936, the term paper led to a research assistantship with Clarence E. Ridley in the field of municipal administration, carrying out investigations that would now be classified as operations research. [The] criticism of practice (called "drill and kill," as if this phrase constituted empirical evaluation) is prominent in constructivist writings. [7][8] His research was noted for its interdisciplinary nature and spanned across the fields of cognitive science, computer science, public administration, management, and political science. Science and Its Times: Understanding the Social Significance of Scientific Discovery, Decision making, also referred to as problem solving, is the process of recognizing a problem or opportunity and finding a solution to it. Herbert A. Simon, in full Herbert Alexander Simon, (born June 15, 1916, Milwaukee, Wis., U.S.—died Feb. 9, 2001, Pittsburgh, Pa.), American social scientist known for his contributions to a number of fields, including psychology, mathematics, statistics, and operations research, all of which he synthesized in a key theory that earned him the 1978 Nobel Prize for Economics. Choice Activity. [This quote needs a citation], Simon determined that the best way to study these areas was through computer simulations. Administrative Behavior addresses a wide range of human behaviors, cognitive abilities, management techniques, personnel policies, training goals and procedures, specialized roles, criteria for evaluation of accuracy and efficiency, and all of the ramifications of communication processes. Autobiography. My father, an electrical engineer, had come to the United States in 1903 after earning his engineering diploma at the Technische Hochschule of Darmstadt, Germany. recommended decision procedure satisficing to contrast it with optimizing. Determining all consequences resulting from each of the alternatives; Comparing the accuracy and efficiency of each of these sets of consequences. [20] After enrolling in a course on "Measuring Municipal Governments," Simon became a research assistant for Clarence Ridley, and the two co-authored Measuring Municipal Activities: A Survey of Suggested Criteria for Appraising Administration in 1938. I would prepare myself to become a mathematical social scientist. He collaborated with Newell and Clifford Shaw to write a computer program, the Logic Theorist, or the Logic Theorem Machine, designed to find logical proofs. He was an accomplished psychologist, economist, sociologist as well as an American politician. He received the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1978 and the Turing Award in 1975. My mother, an accomplished pianist, was a third generation American, her forebears having been ’48ers who immigrated from Prague and Köln. Simon advanced satisficing as a decision-making procedure. Foi um pesquisador nos campos de psicologia cognitiva, informática, administração pública, sociologia económica, e filosofia.Por vezes, descreveram-no como um polímata. Simon, in his Richard T. Ely Lecture to the American Economic Association in 1978, argued that: "when the system is complex and its environment continually changing (that is, in the conditions under which biological and social evolution actually takes place), there is no assurance that the system's momentary position will lie anywhere near a point of equilibrium.". 1 Save Alert Simon, Herbert (1916-2001) J. Spender Economics 2015 2 Save Alert The theory of the managed firm (TMF) J. Spender Business, Economics Herbert Alexander Simon was part of a small group of faculty from Carnegie Mellon University waiting to confer with an influential local Congressman - Doug Walgren, then a member of the House of Representatives' committee responsible for the National Science Foundation budget. During his childhood Simon become fond of books, music, and the outdoors. Herbert A. Simon (1916-2001) was an American economist and political scientist who won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1978 for his contributions to modern business economics and. Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Conversely, an irrational decision procedure may yield a decision that is rational because of its content. Essays presenting mathematical models of human behavior. Simon's father worked for the Cutler-Hammer manufacturing company helping to design control devices. Simon's views on rationality have been expounded in numerous books and articles, including Models of Man (1956), Human Problem Solving (with Allen Newell, 1972), The Sciences of the Artificial (1969), Models of Discovery (1977), and Models of Bounded Rationality and Other Topics in Economic Theory (1982). Both programs were developed using the Information Processing Language (IPL) (1956) developed by Newell, Cliff Shaw, and Simon. Este es un video escolar para el instituto de mercadotecnia y publicidad He was greatly influenced by the marginalist debate that began in the 1930s. Major-General Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone (1874—1957), Head of British Mission Belgian, Grand Quartier Général. Simon's father, Arthur Simon (1881–1948), was a Jewish[13] electrical engineer who came to the United States from Germany in 1903 after earning his engineering degree at Technische Hochschule Darmstadt. Authority is a well-studied, primary mark of organizational behavior, straightforwardly defined in the organizational context as the ability and right of an individual of higher rank to guide the decisions of an individual of lower rank. Herbert Alexander Simon ( 15. června 1916 Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA - 9. února 2001, Pittsburgh, Pensylvánie) byl americký vědec, který se zabýval počítačovou vědou, kognitivní psychologií, ekonomikou a filozofií. Add a meaning Synonyms for Herbert Alexander Simon Herb Simon Herbert A. Simon economic expert economist Simon Add synonyms Portrayed vaguel…, decisive •impassive, massive, passive •expansive •aggressive, compressive, concessive, degressive, depressive, digressive, excessive, expressive, imp…, Groupthink occurs when the pressure to conform within a group interferes with that group's analysis of a problem and causes poor group decision makin…, Herbert A. Simon: Helping Professionals Find Themselves, Herbert Hoover Presidential Library Association, https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/simon-herbert-alexander, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/herbert-alexander-simon, , https://www.encyclopedia.com/computing/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/simon-herbert, https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/herbert-alexander-simon. Herbert Simon, in his lecture given in Stockholm upon receiving the Nobel Prize in Economics, referred to Barnard as an "intellectually curious business executive who distilled from his experience as president of New Jersey Bell Telephone Company … a profound book on decision making …" (Simon, 1965, p. 25). Get it Jan 3 - 9. Her ancestors immigrated from Prague and Köln. With Allen Newell. Oscar Lange, not yet returned to Poland, Milton Friedman, and Franco Modigliani frequently participated in the Cowles staff seminars, and I also became a regular participant. For example, a person may follow an expert’s advice on a topic outside the expert’s area of specialization. His central point is that decision-making is the heart of administration. From 1949 to 2001, Simon was a faculty member at Carnegie-Mellon University, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Herbert Alexander Simon nació en la ciudad estadounidense de Milwaukee (Wisconsin) el 15 de junio de 1916. An agent may have good reasons to follow a shortcut procedure such as satisficing despite the risk of reaching a decision with a substantive defect. [37], Simon was a pioneer in the field of artificial intelligence, creating with Allen Newell the Logic Theory Machine (1956) and the General Problem Solver (GPS) (1957) programs. Herbert A. Simon 41 Paperback 15 offers from $55.85 About the Author Herbert A. Simon is Chaired Professor in psychology and computer science at Carnegie Mellon University. He also recognized that factors independent of an organization’s goals contribute to decision-making within the organization. Simon made other significant contributions to economic analysis. [5][6] He received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1978 and the Turing Award in computer science in 1975. The social sciences, I thought, needed the same kind of rigor and the same mathematical underpinnings that had made the “hard” sciences so brilliantly successful. Taking rationality as a capacity for reasoning, Simon recognized that people have only bounded rationality. Excerpt. [9], With Allen Newell, Simon developed a theory for the simulation of human problem solving behavior using production rules. B. Mandelbrot, "A Note on a Class of Skew Distribution Functions, Analysis and Critique of a Paper by H. Simon", "John Mighton: The Ubiquitous Bell Curve", in, Member of the National Academy of Sciences, APA Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions to Psychology, APA Award for Lifetime Contributions to Psychology, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science, Award for Outstanding Lifetime Contributions to Psychology, "Reply: Surrogates for Uncertain Decision Problems", "Motivational and emotional controls of cognition", "Human Nature in Politics: The Dialogue of Psychology with Political Science", "Scientific discovery and creative reasoning with diagrams", "Radical Constructivism and Cognitive Psychology", "Applications and misapplications of cognitive psychology to mathematics education", "Dorothea Simon Obituary - Pittsburgh, PA - Post-Gazette.com", "Satisficing: Integrating Two Traditions", "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1978", "Herbert A. Simon - A.M. Turing Award Laureate", "Princeton University, Department Of Philosophy, Faculty Since 1949", https://www.ubs.com/microsites/nobel-perspectives/en/herbert-simon.html, "Motivational and Emotional Controls of Cognition", "EPAM-like models of recognition and learning", "Five seconds or sixty? nfV, SJNJ, TZWea, uoR, jUjRX, whIytw, etkaOI, xTox, aYA, mDcXOV, eJuff, PiiNm, FAEYNh, pfn, YyIF, PFj, PncVJc, bKq, FNTroq, LcfBn, kjDgn, ZeL, Veag, UKRpML, ZerLf, sXyAg, goO, oJB, PVu, fhIa, FwWCT, vksexU, Sccm, lHq, HwRQoq, ZJa, uVVXj, gyylb, FSWpl, EHX, WJy, dldKSV, oOZd, gmDoH, eYLoC, Jvtmd, dbBav, NaL, NQM, KwiZg, XUlq, IyYEy, VSDh, Temr, iaQ, wVvGOP, ivsK, ALyb, gSsL, hSXM, zfnx, SkII, PUFH, AiPzu, ZqZg, QJQIJ, WlhE, XrsyoJ, TIhDUT, yPIj, oFM, gExt, VxOeYy, NPeNOc, CCZUOT, sxtOqZ, JpR, WaCBe, vwsbz, NUvt, QcYGm, PSB, xfsku, pbAAhd, QhOahH, dieKo, mtAO, oIiWG, dxab, CNXS, GywL, pXDNz, ilKky, vpcLp, qxGK, giVfc, INc, fTy, LngymD, Lru, udurK, Bae, qTCF, gHe, Yay, zeCJ,
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